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  • Scientific Medical Cannabis References

    Scientific Medical Cannabis References

    The following are scientific references related to various statements made about the effects of medical cannabis found across Aurora Medical’s website and social media pages. As a licensed cannabis producer, Aurora Medical always leads with the science. We never make unproven claims and always use references where applicable.

    Scientific References on THC

    High THC products were selected as being the most helpful in treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and sleep disorders1. Research has shown that THC may be helpful as a therapy for pain, inflammation or nausea/vomiting2.  

    References:

    1. Cahill SP, Lunn SE, Diaz P and Page JE (2021) Evaluation of Patient Reported Safety and Efficacy of Cannabis from a Survey of Medical Cannabis Patients in Canada. Front. Public Health 9:626853.
    2. Baron, EP. Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain: An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science. Headache Curr. 2018;58:1139-86.

    Scientific References on CBD

    High CBD products were selected as being the most helpful in treating recurrent pain, anxiety,  and arthritis and other rheumatic disorders1.  There is also evidence that CBD may be helpful in treating inflammation related to many different conditions2. Finally, the results of a study on the effects of cannabidiol on simulated driving and cognitive performance suggest that acute, oral CBD treatment at doses up to 1500 mg does not induce feelings of intoxication and is unlikely to impair cognitive function or driving performance3.

    References:

    1. Cahill SP, Lunn SE, Diaz P and Page JE (2021) Evaluation of Patient Reported Safety and Efficacy of Cannabis from a Survey of Medical Cannabis Patients in Canada. Front. Public Health 9:626853.
    2. Baron, EP. Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain: An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science. Headache Curr. 2018;58:1139-86.
    3. McCartney, D., Suraev, A. S., Doohan, P. T., Irwin, C., Kevin, R. C., Grunstein, R. R., Hoyos, C. M., & McGregor, I. S. (2022). Effects of cannabidiol on simulated driving and cognitive performance: A dose-ranging randomised controlled trial: Https://Doi.Org/10.1177/02698811221095356, 026988112210953. https://doi.org/10.1177/02698811221095356

    Scientific References on CBG 

    The full medical potential of CBG has yet to be fully investigated but early evidence shows CBG may have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. 

    Anti-inflammatory references: 

    1. Formukong EA, Evans AT, Evans FJ. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of constituents of Cannabis sativa L. Inflammation. 1988;12(4):361-371. doi:10.1007/BF00915771 20.

    2. Ruhaak LR, Felth J, Karlsson PC, Rafter JJ, Verpoorte R, Bohlin L. Evaluation of the cyclooxygenase inhibiting effects of six major cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2011;34(5):774-778. doi:10.1248/bpb.34.774 21.  

    3. Barrett ML, Gordon D, Evans FJ. Isolation from cannabis sativa L. of cannflavin-a novel inhibitor of prostaglandin production. Biochemical Pharmacology. 1985;34(11):2019-2024. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(85)90325-922.  

    4. Evans AT, Formukong E, Evans FJ. Activation of phospholipase A2 by cannabinoids. Lack of correlation with CNS effects. FEBS Letters. 1987;211(2):119-122. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(87)81420-523.  

    5. de Petrocellis L, Ligresti A, Moriello AS, et al. Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2011;163(7):1479-1494. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01166.x 

    Anti-bacterial references: 

    1. Mechoulam R, Gaoni Y. A Total Synthesis of dl-Δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol, the Active Constituent of Hashish1. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2002;87(14):3273-3275. doi:10.1021/JA01092A065  

    2. Eisohly HN, Turner CE, Clark AM, Eisohly MA. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of certain cannabichromene and cannabigerol related compounds. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1982;71(12):1319-1323. doi:10.1002/JPS.2600711204 

    Scientific References on Terpenes

    Terpenes are naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants. They’re responsible for the aromas, tastes and therapeutic benefits of medical cannabis. The following is a list of terpenes commonly found in Aurora’s medical cannabis products, along with the therapeutic benefits of each.

    α-Bisabolol

    Potential therapeutic properties: anti-inflammatory1, anti-microbial2

    1. Maurya A, Singh M, Dubey V, Srivastava S, Luqman S, Bawankule D. α-(-)-bisabolol reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production and ameliorates skin inflammation. Current pharmaceutical biotechnology. 2014;15(2):173-181. doi:10.2174/1389201015666140528152946
    2. Forrer M, Kulik EM, Filippi A, Waltimo T. The antimicrobial activity of alpha-bisabolol and tea tree oil against Solobacterium moorei, a Gram-positive bacterium associated with halitosis. Archives of oral biology. 2013;58(1):10-16. doi:10.1016/J.ARCHORALBIO.2012.08.001

    α-Humulene

    Potential therapeutic properties: anti-inflammatory3

    1. Fernandes ES, Passos GF, Medeiros R, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea. European journal of pharmacology. 2007;569(3):228-236. doi:10.1016/J.EJPHAR.2007.04.059

    α-Pinene

    Potential therapeutic properties: anti-inflammatory, mood4-7

    1. Fernandes ES, Passos GF, Medeiros R, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea. European journal of pharmacology. 2007;569(3):228-236. doi:10.1016/J.EJPHAR.2007.04.059
    2. Zamyad M, Abbasnejad M, Esmaeili-Mahani S, Mostafavi A, Sheibani V. The anticonvulsant effects of Ducrosia anethifolia (Boiss) essential oil are produced by its main component alpha-pinene in rats. Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria. 2019;77(2):106-114. doi:10.1590/0004-282X20180147
    3. Khoshnazar M, Bigdeli MR, Parvardeh S, Pouriran R. Attenuating effect of α-pinene on neurobehavioural deficit, oxidative damage and inflammatory response following focal ischaemic stroke in rat. The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 2019;71(11):1725-1733. doi:10.1111/JPHP.13164
    4. Yamaoka S, Tomita T, Imaizumi Y, Watanabe K, Hatanaka A. Effects of plant-derived odors on sleep-wakefulness and circadian rhythmicity in rats. Chemical senses. 2005;30 Suppl 1. doi:10.1093/CHEMSE/BJH216

    ß-Pinene

    Potential therapeutic properties: anti-anxiety8

    1. Kong Y, Wang T, Wang R, et al. Inhalation of Roman chamomile essential oil attenuates depressive-like behaviors in Wistar Kyoto rats. Science China Life sciences. 2017;60(6):647-655. doi:10.1007/S11427-016-9034-8

    α-Terpineol

    Potential therapeutic properties: anti-inflammatory9, anti-fungal10

    1. Guzmán-Gutiérrez SL, Bonilla-Jaime H, Gómez-Cansino R, Reyes-Chilpa R. Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway. Life sciences. 2015;128:24-29. doi:10.1016/J.LFS.2015.02.021
    2. de Oliveira MGB, Marques RB, de Santana MF, et al. α-terpineol reduces mechanical hypernociception and inflammatory response. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2012;111(2):120-125. doi:10.1111/J.1742-7843.2012.00875.X

    Guaiol

    Potential therapeutic properties: anti-anxiety11, anti-inflammatory12

    1. Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley T v. Antifungal activity of the components of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil. Journal of applied microbiology. 2003;95(4):853-860. doi:10.1046/J.1365-2672.2003.02059.X
    2. Kamal BS, Kamal F, Lantela DE. Cannabis and the Anxiety of Fragmentation-A Systems Approach for Finding an Anxiolytic Cannabis Chemotype. Frontiers in neuroscience. 2018;12. doi:10.3389/FNINS.2018.00730

    Limonene

    Potential therapeutic properties: mood-alleviating13, nausea & vomiting14, and pain 14

    1. Apel MA, Lima MEL, Sobral M, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil from leaves of Myrciaria tenella and Calycorectes sellowianus. Pharmaceutical biology. 2010;48(4):433-438. doi:10.3109/13880200903164386
    2. Komori T, Fujiwara R, Tanida M, Nomura J, Yokoyama MM. Effects of Citrus Fragrance on Immune Function and Depressive States. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1995;2(3):174-180. doi:10.1159/000096889

    Linalool

    Potential therapeutic properties: analgesic15–17, mood-alleviating18, sleep19,20

    1. Kia PY, Safajou F, Shahnazi M, Nazemiyeh H. The Effect of Lemon Inhalation Aromatherapy on Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy: A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2014;16(3):14360. doi:10.5812/IRCMJ.14360
    2. Eftekharsadat B, Roomizadeh P, Torabi S, Heshmati-Afshar F, Jahanjoo F, Babaei-Ghazani A. Effectiveness of Lavendula stoechas essential oil in treatment of mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of hand therapy : official journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists. 2018;31(4):437-442. doi:10.1016/J.JHT.2017.07.004
    3. Taşan E, Ovayolu O, Ovayolu N. The effect of diluted lavender oil inhalation on pain development during vascular access among patients undergoing haemodialysis. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2019;35:177-182. doi:10.1016/J.CTCP.2019.02.010
    4. Kim JT, Ren CJ, Fielding GA, et al. Treatment with lavender aromatherapy in the post-anesthesia care unit reduces opioid requirements of morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Obesity surgery. 2007;17(7):920-925. doi:10.1007/S11695-007-9170-7
    5. Arslan I, Aydinoglu S, Begüm Karan N. Can lavender oil inhalation help to overcome dental anxiety and pain in children? A randomized clinical trial. doi:10.1007/s00431-020-03595-7
    6. Lillehei AS, Halcón LL, Savik K, Reis R. Effect of Inhaled Lavender and Sleep Hygiene on Self-Reported Sleep Issues: A Randomized Controlled Trial. https://home.liebertpub.com/acm. 2015;21(7):430-438. doi:10.1089/ACM.2014.0327

    Terpinolene

    Potential therapeutic properties: antioxidant21

    1. Takeda A, Watanuki E, Koyama S. Effects of Inhalation Aromatherapy on Symptoms of Sleep Disturbance in the Elderly with Dementia. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM. 2017;2017. doi:10.1155/2017/1902807

    Nerolidol

    Potential therapeutic properties: anti-anxiety22, anti-microbial23, antioxidant23

    1. Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley T v. Antifungal activity of the components of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil. Journal of applied microbiology. 2003;95(4):853-860. doi:10.1046/J.1365-2672.2003.02059.X
    2. Graßmann J, Hippeli S, Spitzenberger R, Elstner EF. The monoterpene terpinolene from the oil of Pinus mugo L. in concert with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene effectively prevents oxidation of LDL. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2005;12(6-7):416-423. doi:10.1016/J.PHYMED.2003.10.005

    β-Caryophyllene

    Potential therapeutic properties: mental health24

    1. Kim KN, Ko YJ, Yang HM, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of essential oil and its constituents from fingered citron (Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis) through blocking JNK, ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013;57:126-131. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2013.03.017

    β-Myrcene

    Potential therapeutic properties: analgesia25, anti-microbial, anti-fungal properties27–29

    1. Kim KN, Ko YJ, Yang HM, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of essential oil and its constituents from fingered citron (Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis) through blocking JNK, ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013;57:126-131. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2013.03.017
    2. Bento AF, Marcon R, Dutra RC, et al. β-Caryophyllene Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice through CB2 Receptor Activation and PPARγ Pathway. The American Journal of Pathology. 2011;178(3):1153-1166. doi:10.1016/J.AJPATH.2010.11.052
    3. Bahi A, al Mansouri S, al Memari E, al Ameri M, Nurulain SM, Ojha S. β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice. Physiology & Behavior. 2014;135:119-124. doi:10.1016/J.PHYSBEH.2014.06.003
    4. Paula-Freire LIG, Molska GR, Andersen ML, Carlini ELDA. Ocimum gratissimum Essential Oil and Its Isolated Compounds (Eugenol and Myrcene) Reduce Neuropathic Pain in Mice. Planta medica. 2016;82(3):211-216. doi:10.1055/S-0035-1558165
    5. Kpadonou Kpoviessi BGH, Kpoviessi SDS, Yayi Ladekan E, et al. In vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activities of crude extracts and essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum Linn from Benin and influence of vegetative stage. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2014;155(3):1417-1423. doi:10.1016/J.JEP.2014.07.014
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